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SCR - self-sustaining chain reaction.
Nuclear chain reaction - single sequence of nuclear reactions, each of which is called a particle, which appeared as a reaction product in the previous step sequence.

An example of a nuclear chain reaction is a chain reaction of fission of nuclei of heavy elements, at which the main number of acts of fission initiated by neutrons, obtained during the fission of nuclei in the previous generation.

Information and documents on the criticality:

Reports LANL LA-11627-MS Glossary of Nuclear Criticality Terms
    LA-12683 Forecast of Criticality Experiments and Experimental Programs Needed to Support Nuclear Operations in the United States of America: 1994-1999
    LA-13265 A Primer for Criticality Calculations with DANTSYS, by Robert Busch.
    LA-13638 and References - A Review of Criticality Accidents, 2000 Revision
    LA-13638

and References - A Review of Criticality Accidents, 2000 Revision

0.   T.P. McLaughlin, S.P. Monahan, N.L. Pruvost, V.V. Frolov, B.G. Ryazanov, V.I. Sviridov, “A Review of Criticality Accidents: 2000 Revision.” Los Alamos National Laboratory Report LA-13638 (May 2000).

1.   Stratton,
“W. R. A Review of Criticality Accidents.” Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory Los Alamos, NM., LA-3611, (1967).

2.   Stratton W. R., revised by D. R. Smith.
“A Review of Criticality Accidents.” Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA, DOE/NCT-04, (March 1989).

3.   Paxton, Hugh C.
“Glossary of Nuclear Criticality Terms.” Los Alamos National Laboratory report LA-11627-MS, Los Alamos, NM, (October 1989).

4.   Barbry,
“F. SILENE Reactor: Results of Selected Typical Experiments.” Report SRSC n223, CEA Institute de Protectionet de Surete Nucleaire , Department de Recherches en Securite, Service de Recherches en Surete et Criticite, Centre d'Etudes de VALDUC - SRSC 21120 Is-sur-Tille, France, (September 1994).

5.   Lecorche, P., and R. L. Seale.
“Review of the Experiments Performed to Determine the Radiological Consequences of a Criticality Accident.” Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, TN., Y-CDC-12, (1973).

6.   Dunenfeld, M.S., and R. K. Stitt. “Summary Review of the Kinetics Experiments on Water Boilers.”NAA-SR-7087, (1963). This report is proprietary information of North American Aviation Co.

7.  
“Accidental Radiation Excursion at the Y-12 Plant June 16, 1958.” Union Carbide Nuclear Company, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, TN., Y-1234, (1958).

8.   Callihan, D., and J. T. Thomas.
“Accidental Radiation Excursion at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant—I, Description and Physics of the Accident.” Health Phys., 1, 363-372, (1959).

9.  
“Oak Ridge Y-12 Accidental Excursion, June 16, 1958.” Nucleonics, 16, Nov., pp. 138-140, 200-203, (1958).

10.   Hurst, G. S., R. S. Ritchie, and R. L. Emerson.
“Accidental Radiation Excursion at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Part III, Determination of Doses.” Health Physics, 2, p. 121 (1959).

11.   Paxton, H. C., R. D. Baker, W. T. Maraman, and R. Reider.
“Nuclear-Critical Accident at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory on December 30, 1958.” Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, LAMS-2293 (1959).

12.   Paxton, H. C., R. D. Baker, W. J. Maraman, and R. Reider.
“Los Alamos Criticality Accident, December 30, 1958.” Nucleonics, 17(4), pp. 107-108, 151 (1959).

13.   Ginkel, W. L., C. W. Bills, A. O. Dodd, K. K. Kennedy, and F. H. Tingey.
“Nuclear Incident at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant on October 16, 1959.” Phillips Petroleum Co., Atomic Energy Div., Idaho Falls, ID, IDO-10035 (1960).

14.   Paulus, P. C., A. O. Dodd, K. K. Kennedy, F. H. Tingey, and F. M. Warzel.
“Nuclear Incident at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant on January 25, 1961.” Phillips Petroleum Company, Atomic Energy Div., Idaho Falls, ID, IDO-10036 (1961).

15.   Latchum J. W., F. C. Haas, W. M. Hawkins, and F. M. Warzel.
“Nuclear Incident at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant of January 25, 1961.” La-54-61A, Phillips Petroleum Co., (4 April 1961). 61. La-54-61A, Phillips Petroleum Co., (4 April 1961).

16.   Olsen A. R., R. L. Hooper, V. O. Uotinen, and C. L. Brown.
“Empirical Model to Estimate Energy Release from Accidental Criticality.” Trans. Am. Nuc. Soc., 19, pp. 189-191, (October 1974).

17.   Hetrick, D. L.
Letter to Thomas P. McLaughlin, (14 July 1999).

18.   Callihan, D.
“Accidental Nuclear Excursion in Recuplex Operation at Hanford in April 1962.” Nucl. Safety, 4(4), pp. 136-144, (1963).

19.   Clayton, E. D.
“Further Considerations of Criticality in Recuplex and Possible Shutdown Mechanism.” Hanford Atomic Products Operation, Hanford, Wash. HW-77780 (1963).

20.   Zangar, C. N.
“Summary Report of Accidental Nuclear Excursion Recuplex Operation 234-5 Facility.” HW74723, Richland Operations Office, AEC, TID-18431 (1962).

21.   Investigation Committee.
“Final Report of Accidental Nuclear Excursion Recuplex Operation 234-5 Facility.” Hanford Operations Office, H W-74723, (August, 1962).

22.   Clayton, E. D.
“The Hanford Pulser Accident.” Transactions of the American Nuclear Society, 46, pp. 463-464, (June 1984).

23.   Nakache, F. R., and M. M. Shapiro.
“The Nuclear Aspects of the Accidental Criticality at Wood River Junction, Rhode Island, July 24, 19 64.” Supplemental Report, United Nuclear Corp., New Haven, Conn., Fuels Div., TID-21995 (1964).

24.   Kouts, H., et al.
“Report of the AEC Technical Review Committee, (Nov. 6, 1964).”

25.   Daniels, J. T., H. Howells, and T. G. Hughes.
“Criticality Incident-Aug 24, 1970, Windscale Works.” Trans. Am. Nuc. Sec., 14, pp. 35-3 6 (1971).

26.   Evans, M. C.
“A Review of Criticality Accidents Within the European Community.” Trans. Am. Nuc. Sec., 46, pp. 462-463 (1984).

27.   Evans, M.C.,
“A Review of Criticality Accidents Within the European Community.” Notes from oral presentation at the Summer Meeting of the American Nuclear Society, New Orleans, (June 1984).

28.  
“Recovery of ICPP from Criticality Event of October 17, 1978 - Part II (Support and Safety Justification of the Specific Approach to Emptying H-100).” Allied Chemical, ACI-366, (January 1979).

29.   Casto, W. R. (ed.).
“ICPP Criticality Event of October 17, 1978.” Nuclear Safety, vol. 21, No. 5, (October 1980).

30.  
“Report of the Accident Investigation Committee on a Critical Accident in Uranium Fuel Fabrication Plant.” The Nuclear Saf ety Commission, Japan (December 42, 1999).

31.   “Report No. 3 in the 5th Meeting in 2000 of the Nuclear Safety Commission: 'Scope of Radiation Dose to Persons by the Critical Accident in JCO Co., Ltd. Tokai Site and Its Follow-up.'” Nuclear Safety Bureau of Science and Technology Agency, Japan, (January 2000).

32.   McCoy, F. R. III, T.P. McLaughlin, and L.C. Lewis.
“U.S. Department of Energy Trip Report of Visit to Tokyo and Tokai-Mura, Japan on October 18-19, 1999 for Information Exchange with Government of Japan Concerning the September 30, 1999 Tokai-Mura Criticality Accident.” U. S. Department of Energy.

33.  
“NEA Nuclear Science Committee. International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments. NEA/NSC/DOC-(95)-03, (September 1998).

34.   Paxton, H. C., and N. L. Pruvost.
“Critical Dimensions of Systems Containing 235U, 239Pu, and 233U, 1986 Revision.” LA-10860-MS, Fig. 4, p. 14, (July 1987).

35.   Taylor, E. F., and J. A. Wheeler.
“Spacetime Physics.” W. H. Freeman and Co.,p. 60, San Francisco, p. 60, (1966).

36.   Callihan, D., W. Ozeroff, H. Paxton, and C. Schuske.
“Nuclear Safety Guide.” U. S. Atomic Energy Commission report TID-7016, (1957).

37.   Hayes, D. F.
“A Summary of Accidents and Incidents Involving Radiation in Atomic Energy Activities, June 1945 through December 1955.” U. S. Atomic Energy Commission TID-5360, (1956).

38.   King, L. D. P.
“Design and Description of Water Boiler Reactors.” Proc. Intern. Conf. Peaceful Uses At. Energy, Geneva 1955, vol. 2, p p. 372-391, (1955).

39.   Leonard, Jr., B. R.
“A Study of the Radiation Burst in the Hanford Homogeneous Reactor.” Hanford Works, Richland, WA, HW-24327, (1952).

40.   Thomas, J. T., and A. D. Callihan.
“Radiation Excursions at the ORNL Critical Experiments Laboratory. I. May 26, 1954. II. February 1, 1956.”Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, ORNL-2452, (1958).

41.   Callihan, D.
“Excursion at the Oak Ridge Critical Experiments Facility, January 30, 1968.” Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, ORNL-TM-2207, (1968).

42.   Paxton, H. C.
“Critical-Assembly Booby Traps.” Nucleonics 16, Mar., pp. 80-81, (1958).

43.   Paine, Jr., R. W., R. S. Dike, J. D. Orndoff, and D. P. Wood.
“A Study of an Accidental Radiation Burst.” Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory , Los Alamos, NM, LA-1289, (1951).

44.   Paxton, H. C.
“Booby Traps.” Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, AECD-4240, (1957).

45.   Mallary, E. C., G. E. Hansen, G. A. Linenberger, and D. P. Wood.
“Neutron Burst from a Cylindrical Untamped Oy (Enriched U) Assembly.” Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, LA-1477, (1952).

46.   Peterson, R. E., and G. A. Newby.
“An Unreflected U-235 Critical Assembly.” Nucl. Sci. Eng. 1, 112-125, (1956).

47.   Wimett, T. F., L. B. Engle, G. A. Graves, G. R. Keepin, Jr., and J. D. Orndoff.
“Time Behavior of Godiva Through Prompt Critical.” Los A lamos Scientific Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, LA-2029, (1956).

48.   Paxton, H. C.
“Godiva, Topsy, Jezebel-Critical Assemblies at Los Alamos.” Nucleonics 13, Oct., 48-50, (1955).

49.   A. M. Voinov, V. P. Egorov, A. E. Zapolsky, et al. “Facility for neutronics testing of simple critical assemblies.” VANT, section Nuclear Reactor Physics, 2, pp. 21-29, (1992).

50.   Paxton, H. C.
“Godiva Wrecked at Los Alamos.” Nucleonics 15, Apr., p. 104, (1957).

51.   Stratton, W. R., T. H. Colvin, and R. B. Lazarus.
“Analyses of Prompt Excursions in Simple Systems and Idealized Fast Reactors.” In Proc. UN Intern. Conf. Peaceful Uses At. Energy, 2nd, Geneva, 1958 (United Nations, Geneva), vol. 12, pp. 196-206, (1958).

52.   Wimett, T. F., and J. D. Orndoff.
“Applications of Godiva II Neutron Pulses.” In Proc. UN Intern. Conf. Peaceful Uses At. Energy, 2nd, Geneva, 1958 (United Nations, Geneva), vol. 10, pp. 449-460, (1958).

53.   Callihan, D.,
“Criticality Excursion of November 10, 1961.” Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, ORNL-TM-139, (1962).

54.   Kuvshinov M. I., P. F. Cherednic, I. I. Ignatov, et al. “Experimental research of coupled systems including BIR pulse reactor and a subcritical assembly.” VANT, Section: Pulse reactors and simple critical assemblies, 2, pp. 3-15, (1988).

55.   Kathren, R. L., W. C. Day, D. H. Denham, and J. L. Brown.
“Health Physics Following a Nuclear Excursion: The LRL Incident of March 26, 1963.” Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA, UCRL-7345, (1963).

56.   “Fast Burst Reactor Facility Operations report Number 2.” White Sands Missile Range, White Sands, NM, (1965). This reference has been carried over from a previous edition of the document. At the time of printing it was not possible to locate a copy of the reference.

57.   Teryokhin, V. A., V. D. Perezhogin, and Y. A. Sokolov.
“Criticality Measurements at VNIITF Review.” In Proc. of the Fifth Internationa l Conference on Nuclear Criticality Safety, September 17-21, 1995, pp. 4.44-4.47, (1995).

58.   Voloshin, N. P., I. S. Pogrebov, and V. A. Teryokhin.
“RFNC-VNIITF Physical Experimental Division and a Short Historical Sketch of Cri tical Mass Measurements.” In Proc. of the Fifth International Conference on Nuclear Criticality Safety, September 17-21, 1995, pp. P-31- P -36, (1995).

59.   Kazi, A. H., H. G. Dubyoski, and E. W. Dickinson.
“Preoperational Test Experience with the Army Pulse Radiation Facility Reactor.” In Proc. of the National Topical Meeting on Fast Burst Reactors, Albuquerque, NM (U. S. Atomic Energy Commission), pp. 353-371, (1969).

60.   Voloshin, N. P. “Summary of the expert findings about the causes of the nuclear accident at RFNC-VNIIEF.” Sarov. Atompressa, 26 (262), (July 1997).

61.   Punin, V. T., I. G. Smirnov, and S. A. Zykov.
“The Accident of the RFNC-VNIIEF Criticality Test Facility.” Atomnaya energia, 83.2, pp. 154-156, (1997).

62.   Khodalev, G. F., E. Yu. Tarasova, A. K. Zhitnik, et al.
“An exposure dose for the experimentalist during the criticality accident at R FNC-VNIIEF.” Atomnaya energia, 85.2, pp. 153-158 (1998).

63.   Argonne National Laboratory.
“Controlled Nuclear Chain Reaction: The First 50 Years.” American Nuclear Society, La Grange Park, IL, pp . 52-54 (1992).

64.   Brittan, R. O., R. J. Hasterlik, L. D. Marinelli, and F. W. Thalgott.
“Technical Review of ZPR-1 Accidental Transient-The Power Excursi on, Exposures, and Clinical Data.” Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL, ANL-4971, (1953).

65.   Lewis, W. B.
“The Accident to the NRX Reactor on December 12, 1952.” Atomic Energy of Canada, Ltd., Chalk River Project, Chalk River, On tario, Canada, DR-32, (1953).

66.   Hurst, D. C., and A. G. Ward.
“Canadian Research Reactors.” In Progress in Nuclear Energy, Series II, Reactors, vol. I. R. A. Charpie, D. J. Hughes, D. J. Littler, and M. Trocheris, Eds. Pergamon Press, London, pp. 1-48, (1956).

67.   Henderson, W. J., A.C. Johnson, and P. R. Tunnicliffe. An Investigation of Some of the Circumstances Pertinent to the Accident to the NRX Reactor of December 12, 1952. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River Ontario, NEI-26, (March 31, 1953).

68.   Dietrich, J. R.
“Experimental Determinations of the Self-Limitation of Power During Reactivity Transients in a Subcooled, Water-Moderated Reactor.” Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL, ANL-5323, (1954).

69.  
“Reactors.” Nucleonics, 13, Sept., 40-45, (1955).

70.   Dietrich, J. R.
“Experimental Determinations of the Self-Regulation and Safety of Operating Water-Moderated Reactors.” In Proc. Intern . Conf. Peaceful Uses At. Energy, Geneva, 1955, United Nations, New York, vol. 13, pp. 88-101, (1956).

71.   Dietrich, J. R., and D. C. Layman.
“Transient and Steady State Characteristics of a Boiling Reactor. The Borax Experiments, 1953.” Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL, AECD-3840, (1954).

72.   Thompson, T. J., and J. G. Beckerley, Eds.
“The Technology of Nuclear Reactor Safety,” vol. 1 (The M.I.T. Press, Cambridge, MA, 1964).

73.   Lushbaugh, C. C.
“Reflections on Some Recent Progress in Human Radiobiology.” In Advances in Radiation Biology, vol. 3, L. G. Augenste in, R. Mason, and M. Zelle, Eds. (Academic Press Inc., pp 277-314., (1969).

74.   Tardiff, A. N.
“Some Aspects of the WTR and SL-1 Accidents.” In Proc. Symp. Reactor Safety and Hazards Evaluation Techniques. vol. 1, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, pp. 43-88, (1962).

75.   Nyer, W. E., G. O. Bright, and R. J. McWhorter.
“Reactor Excursion Behavior.” In Proc. UN Intern. Conf. Peaceful Uses At. Energy, 3rd, Geneva, 1964, vol. 13, United Nations, Geneva, pp. 13-25, (1965).

76.   Miller, R. W., A. Sola, and R. K. McCardell,
“Report of the SPERT-1 Destructive Test Program on an Aluminum, Plate-type, Water-Modera ted Reactor,” Phillips Petroleum Company, IDO-16883, (June 1964).

77.   Parfanovich, D. M.
“Summary of Two Criticality Accidents at the Russian Research Center” Kurchatov Institute. INEEL/EXT-98-00409, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, J. Blair Briggs, ed., (August 1998).

78.  
“Water-Moderated Hexagonally Pitched Lattices of U(9O%)O2 + Cu Fuel Rods with GD or SM Rods.” HEU-COMP-THERM-004, International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments, NEA/N S C/DOC(95)03/II, 1996 Version or Later.

79.  
US NRC Information Notice No. 83-66, Supplement 1: Fatality at Argentine Critical Facility, (May 25, 1984).

80.   Frisch, O. R.
“Controlled Production of an Explosive Nuclear Chain Reaction.” Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, LA-397, (1945).

81.   De Hoffman, F., B. T. Feld, and P. R. Stein.
“Delayed Neutrons from 235U After Short Irradiation.” Phys. Rev., 74, (10) 1330-1337, (19 48).

82.   Brittan, R. O.
“Analysis of the EBR-1 Core Meltdown.” In Proc. UN Intern. Conf. Peaceful Uses At. Energy, 2nd Geneva, 1958, vol. 12, United Nations, Geneva, pp. 267-272, (1958).

83.   Kittel, J. H., M. Novick, and R. F. Buchanan.
“The EBR-1 Meltdown-Physical and Metallurgical Changes in the Core.” Argonne National Labo ratory, Argonne, IL, ANL-5731, (1957).

84.  
“Summary Report of HTRE No. 3 Nuclear Excursion.” General Electric Co., Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Dept., Cincinnati, OH, APEX-509, (19 59).

85.   Remley, M. E., J. W. Flora, D. L. Hetrick, D. R. Muller, E. L. Gardner, R. E. Wimmer, R. K. Stitt, and D. P. Gamble.
“Experimental Studies on the Kinetic Behavior of Water Boiler Type Reactors.” In Proc. UN Intern. Conf. Peaceful Uses At. Energy, 2nd, Geneva 1958, vol. 11 , United Nations, Geneva, pp. 447-456 (1958).

86.   Stitt, R. K.
“A Summary of Experimental Results of the Spherical Core Investigations in the Kewb Program.” Nucl. Sci. Eng., 2 (1), Su ppl., 212-213, (1959).

87.   Hetrick, D. L., J. W. Flora, E.L. Garner, et.al.
“Preliminary Results on the Kinetic Behavior of Water Boiler Reactors.” Atomics International, North American Aviation, NAA-SR-1896, (April 15, 1987).

88.   Malenfant, R. E., H. M. Forehand, and J. J. Koelling.
“Sheba: A Solution Critical Assembly.” Trans. Amer. Nucl. Sec. 35 p. 279, (1980) .

89.   Forbes, S. G., F. L. Bentzen, P. French, J. E. Grund, I. C. Haire, W. E. Nyer, and R. F. Walker. “Analysis of Self-Shutdown Behavior in the Spert-1 Reactor.” Phillips Petroleum Company, Atomic Energy Div., Idaho Falls, Idaho, IDO-16528, (1959). This reference has been carried over from a previous edition of the document. At the time of printing it was not possible to locate a copy of the document.

90.   Nyer, W. E., and S. G. Forbes.
“SPERT-1 Reactor Safety Studies.” In Proc. UN Intern. Conf. Peaceful Uses At. Energy, 2nd, Geneva, 1958 , vol. 11, United Nations, Geneva, pp. 470-480, (1958).

91.   Schroeder, F., S. G. Forbes, W. E. Nyer, F. L. Bentzen, and G. O. Bright.
“Experimental Study of Transient Behavior in a Subcooled, Water-Moderated Reactor.” Nucl. Sci. Eng. 2, 96-115, (1957).

92.   Stone, R. S., H. P. Sleeper, Jr., R. H. Stahl, and G. West.
“Transient Behavior of TRIGA, a Zirconium-Hydride, Water-Moderated Reactor .” Nucl. Sci. Eng., 6, 255-259, (1959).

93.   Koutz, S. L., T. Taylor, A. McReynolds, F. Dyson, R. S. Stolne, H. P. Sleeper, Jr., and R. B. Duffield.
“Design of a 10-kw Reactor for Isotope Production, Research and Training Purposes.” In Proc. UN Intern. Conf. Peaceful Uses At. Energy, 2nd, Geneva, 1958, vol. 10, United Nations, Geneva, pp. 282-286, (1958).

94.   Knief, R. A.,
“Nuclear Criticality Safety: Theory and Practice.” American Nuclear Society, LaGrange Park, IL, p. 11, (1985).

95.   Hansen, G. E.
“Burst Characteristics Associated with the Slow Assembly of Fissionable Materials.” Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, LA-1441, (1952).

96.   Fuchs, K.
“Efficiency for Very Slow Assembly.” Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, LA-596, (1946).

97.   Hansen, G. E.
“Assembly of Fissionable Material in the Presence of a Weak Neutron Source.” Nucl. Sci. Eng., 8, 709-719, (1960).”

98.   Keepin, G. R.
“Physics of Nuclear Kinetics.” Addison Wesley Pub. Co., Reading, MA, p. 287, (1965).

99.   Keepin, G. R, and C. W. Cox.
“General Solution of the Reactor Kinetics Equations.” Nucl. Sci. Eng., 8, 670-690, (1960).

100.   Gamble, D. P.
“A Proposed Model of Bubble Growth During Fast Transients in the Kewb Reactor.” Nucl. Sci. Eng., 2 (1), Suppl., 213-214 , (1959).

101.   Wilson, Robert E., and Jensen, William D.
“Reflections on the 1978 ICPP Criticality Accident.” Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Nuclear Criticality Safety, Vol. IV, 1540-1544,(1999).
    LA-13638-TR Russian Translation of LA-13638, 'A Review of Criticality Accidents, 2000 Revision.'
    LA-14098 Modern Fission Theory for Criticality, by J Eric Lynn
    LA-UR-04-6514 The Heritage and Usage of the Words Fissionable and Fissile in Criticality,' by N. L. Pruvost, J Eric Lynn, and Charles D. Harmon II.
    LA-UR-05-3247 'A Technically Useful History of the Critical Mass Laboratory at Rocky Flats.' by Robert E. Rothe.
    LA-14244-M Hand Calculation Methods for Criticality Safety – A Primer, by Douglas G. Bowen and Robert D. Busch.
  Other   The Criticality Accident in Sarov. Issued 19 March 2001 by the IAEA
Technical Documents LANL LA-10860 and Reference Set:

 Critical Dimensions of Systems Containing 235U, 239Pu, and 233U.

0.   H.C. Paxton and N. L. Pruvost, “Critical Dimensions of Systems Containing 235U, 239Pu, and 233U, 1986 Revision,” Los Alamos National Laboratory report LA-10860-MS (July 1987).

1.   H. C. Paxton, J. T. Thomas, Dixon Callihan, and E. B. Johnson, “
Critical Dimensions of Systems Containing U235, Pu239, and U233,” Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory report TID-7028 (June 1964).

2.   J. T. Thomas, Ed., “
Nuclear Safety Guide TID-7016,” U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission report NUREG/CR-0095 (ORNL/NUREG/CSD-6) (June 1978).

3.   “Nuclear Criticality Safety in Operations with Fissionable Materials Outside Reactors,” ANSI/ANS-8.1-1983 (Revision of ANSI/N16.1-1975) (American National Standards Institute, Inc., New York, 1983).

4.   H. K. Clark, “
Subcritical Limits for Plutonium Systems,” Nucl. Sci. Eng. 79, 65-84 (1981).

5.   H. K. Clark, “
Subcritical Limits for Uranium-235 Systems,” Nucl. Sci. Eng. 81, 351-378 (1982).

6.   H. K. Clark, “
Subcritical Limits for Uranium-233 Systems,” Nucl. Sci. Eng. 81, 379-395 (1982).

7.   H. K. Clark, “
Handbook of Nuclear Safety,” Savannah River Laboratory report DP-532 (January 1961). F. Abbey, “Manual of Criticality Data, Parts 1, 2, 3,” AHSB(s) Handbook 5, UKAEA Health and Safety Branch (1967). “Guide de Criticite, Parts I, II, III,” (in French) CEA-R3114, Commissariat a l’Energie Atomique, Saclay (1967). B. G. Dubovskiy et al., “Critical Parameters of Fissionable Materials Systems and Nuclear Safety (A Handbook),” Russian Translation JPRS:42,322, Clearing House for Federal Scientific and Technical Information (1967). R. D. Carter, G. R. Kiel, and K. R. Ridgway, “Criticality Handbook, Vols. I, II, III,” Atlantic Richfield Hanford Co. report ARH-600 (1968).

8.   H. F. Henry, A. J. Mallett, C. E. Newlon, and W. A. Pryor, “
Criticality Data and Nuclear Safety Guide Applicable to the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant,” Union Carbide Nuclear Company, K-25 Plant report K-1019 (5th Rev.) (May 1959). E. D. Clayton, “Nuclear Safety in Chemical and Metallurgical Processing of Plutonium,” Hanford Atomic Products report HW-68929 (April 1961).

9.   D. Callihan, “
Experiments for Criticality Control,” in Criticality Control in Chemical and Metallurgical Plant, Karlsruhe Symposium, 1961 (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, European Nuclear Energy Agency, Paris, 1961), pp. 589-614.

10.   G. E. Hansen and W. H. Roach, “
Six and Sixteen Group Cross Sections for Fast and Intermediate Critical Assemblies,” Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory report LAMS-2543 (November 1961).

11.   B. G. Carlson, C. Lee, and W. Worlton, “
The DSN and TDC Neutron Transport Codes,” Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory reports LAMS-2346 and LAMS-2346, Appendix I (October 1959).

12.   R. D. O’Dell, F. W. Brinkley, Jr., and D. R. Marr, “
User’s Manual for ONEDANT: A Code Package for One-Dimensional, Diffusion-Accelerated, Neutral-Particle Transport,” Los Alamos National Laboratory report LA-9184-M (February 1982).

13.   R. E. Alcouffe, F. W. Brinkley, D. R. Marr, and R. D. O’Dell, “
User’s Guide for TWODANT: A Code Package for Two-Dimensional, Diffusion-Accelerated, Neutral-Particle Transport,” Los Alamos National Laboratory report LA-10049-M, Rev. 1 (October 1984).

14.   W. R. Stratton, “
Criticality Data and Factors Affecting Criticality of Single Homogeneous Units,” Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory report LA-3612 (September 1967).

15.   J. F. Briesmeister, Ed., “
MCNP-A General Monte Carlo Code for Neutron and Photon Transport, Version 3A,” Los Alamos National Laboratory report LA-7396-M, Rev. 2, Manual (September 1986).

16.   H. C. Paxton, “
Fast Critical Experiments,” in Progress in Nuclear Energy (Pergamon Press, Ltd., 1981), Vol. 7, pp. 151-174.

17.   Roy Reider, “
An Early History of Criticality Safety,” Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory report LA-4671 (May 1971).

18.   Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory of the University of California, “
An Enriched Homogeneous Nuclear Reactor,” Rev. Sci. Inst. 22, 489-499 (1951); also L. D. P. King, “Water Boilers,” Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory report LA-1034, Chapter 4 (December 1947).

19.   H. D. Smyth,
Atomic Energy for Military Purposes (Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 1945), pp. 98, 143.

20.   H. C. Paxton, “
Los Alamos Critical Mass Data,” Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory report LA-3067-MS, Rev. (December 1975).

21.   A. H. Snell, “
Critical Experiments on Fluorinated and Hydrogenated Mixtures Containing Enriched Uranium,” Monsanto Clinton Laboratories report MonP-48 (November 1945).

22.   C. K. Beck, A. D. Callihan, and R. L. Murray, “
Critical Mass Studies, Part I,” Carbide and Carbon Chemicals Corporation report A-4716 (June 1947).

23.   C. K. Beck, A. D. Callihan, and R. L. Murray, “
Critical Mass Studies, Part II,” Carbide and Carbon Chemicals Corporation report K-126 (January 1948).

24.   R. Caizergues, E. Deilgat, P. Lécorché, L. Maubert, and H. Revol, “
Criticality of Liquid Mixtures of Highly 235U-Enriched Uranium Hexafluoride and Hydrofluoric Acid,” (translation) Union Carbide Corporation report Y-CDC-9 (May 1971).

25.   W. R. Stratton, “
A Review of Criticality Accidents,” Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory report. LA-3611 (1967).

26.   F. E. Kruesi, J. O. Erkman, and D. D. Lanning, “
Critical Mass Studies of Plutonium Solutions,” Hanford Atomic Products Operation report HW-24514 (Del.) (May 1952).

27.   R. C. Lloyd, E. D. Clayton, and W. A. Reardon, “
Operating Experience in the Hanford Plutonium Critical Mass Facility,” Trans. Am. Nucl. Soc. 5, 76, 77 (1962).

28.   J. G. Walford and A. F. Thomas, “
The Equipment and Methods Used in British Criticality Laboratories,” in Criticality Control in Chemical and Metallurgical Plant, Karlsruhe Symposium, 1961 (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, European Nuclear Energy Agency, Paris, 1961), pp. 553-588.

29.   J. Carothers, “
Hazards Summary Report for the LRL Critical Facility,” Lawrence Radiation Laboratory report UCRL-6220 (March 1960).

30.   P. R. Lécorché, “
Critical Mass Laboratory Program in France,” Trans. Am. Nucl. Soc. 16, 158, 159 (1973).

31.   C. L. Schuske, “
Experimental Programs at the Dow Rocky Flats Nuclear Safety Laboratory,” Trans. Am. Nucl. Soc. 16, 157, 158 (1973).

32.   C. K. Beck, A. D. Callihan, J. W. Morfitt, and R. L. Murray, “
Critical Mass Studies, Part III,” Carbide and Carbon Chemicals Corporation report K-343 (April 1949).

33.   J. K. Fox, L. W. Gilley, and D. Callihan, “
Critical Mass Studies, Part IX. Aqueous U235 Solutions,” Oak Ridge National Laboratory report ORNL-2367 (March 1958).

34.   J. K. Fox, L. W. Gilley, and J. H. Marable, “
Critical Parameters of a Proton-Moderated and Proton-Reflected Slab of U235,” Nucl. Sci. Eng. 3, 694-697 (1958).

35.   J. T. Mihalczo and J. J. Lynn, “
Neutron Multiplication Experiments with Enriched Uranium Metal in Slab Geometry,” Oak Ridge National Laboratory report ORNL-CF-61-4-33 (April 1961).

36.   J. T. Mihalczo, “
Graphite and Polyethylene Reflected Uranium Metal Cylinders and Annuli,” Union Carbide Corporation, Nuclear Division report Y-DR-81 (April 1972).

37.   G. E. Hansen, H. C. Paxton, and D. P. Wood, “
Critical Plutonium and Enriched-Uranium-Metal Cylinders of Extreme Shape,” Nucl. Sci. Eng. 8, 570-577 (1960).

38.   E. C. Mallary, “
Oralloy Cylindrical Shape Factor and Critical Mass Measurements in Graphite, Paraffin, and Water Tampers,” Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory report LA-1305 (October 1951).

39.   G. E. Hansen, D. P. Wood, and B. Pena, “
Reflector Savings of Moderating Materials on Large-Diameter U(93.2) Slabs,” Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory report LAMS-2744 (October 1962).

40.   J. K. Fox, L. W. Gilley, and E. R. Rohrer, “
Critical Mass Studies, Part VIII. Aqueous Solutions of U233,” Oak Ridge National Laboratory report ORNL-2143 (September 1959).

41.   F. A. Kloverstrom, “
Spherical and Cylindrical Plutonium Critical Masses,” University of California Radiation Laboratory report UCRL-4957 (September 1957).

42.   C. L. Schuske, M. G. Arthur, and D. F. Smith, “
Criticality Measurements on Plutonium Metal Preliminary to the Design of a Melting Crucible,” Dow Chemical Co., Rocky Flats Plant report RFP-63 (June 1956).

43.   R. C. Lane, “
Measurements of the Critical Parameters of Under-Moderated Uranium-Hydrogen Mixtures at Intermediate Enrichment,” in Proceedings of the Symposium Criticality Control of Fissile Materials, Stockholm, 1-5 November 1965 (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1966) pp. 177-191.

44.   A. D. Callihan, D. F. Cronin, J. K. Fox, and J. W. Morfitt, “
Critical Mass Studies, Part V,” Carbide and Carbon Chemicals Corp., K-25 Plant report K-643 (June 1950).

45.   G. A. Linenberger, J. D. Orndoff, and H. C. Paxton, “
Enriched-Uranium Hydride Critical Assemblies,” Nucl. Sci. Eng. 7, 44-57 (1960).

46.   L. E. Hansen and E. D. Clayton, “
Criticality of Plutonium Compounds in the Under-Moderated Range, H/Pu ≤ 20,” Nucl. Appl. 3, 481-487 (1967).

47.   J. S. Johnson and K. A. Kraus, “
Density and Refractive Index of Uranyl Fluoride Solutions,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 75, 4594-4595 (1953).

48.   J. T. Thomas, J. K. Fox, and Dixon Callihan, “
A Direct Comparison of Some Nuclear Properties of U-233 and U-235,” Nucl. Sci. Eng. 1, 20-32 (1956).

49.   J. T. Thomas, “
Parameters for Two Group Analysis of Critical Experiments with Water Reflected Spheres Of UO2F2 Aqueous Solutions,” Oak Ridge National Laboratory report ORNL-CF-56-8-201 (August 1956).

50.   J. K. Fox, L. W. Gilley, R. Gwin, and J. T. Thomas, “
Critical Parameters of Uranium Solutions in Simple Geometry,” in “Neutron Physics Division Annual Progress Report for Period Ending September 1, 1958,” Oak Ridge National Laboratory report ORNL-2609 (October 1958), p.42.

51.   R. Gwin and D. W. Magnuson, “
The Measurement of Eta and Other Nuclear Properties of U233 and U235 in Critical Aqueous Solutions,” Nucl. Sci. Eng. 12, 364-380 (1962).

52.   R. H. Masterson, J. D. White, and T. J. Powell, “
The Limiting Critical Concentrations for Pu239 and U235 in Aqueous Solutions,” Hanford Atomic Products Operation report HW-77089 (March 1963).

53.   R. E. Peterson and G. A. Newby, “
An Unreflected U-235 Critical Assembly,” Nucl. Sci. Eng.1, 112-125 (1956).

54.   C. C. Byers, J. J. Koelling, G. E. Hansen, D. R. Smith, and H. R. Dyer, “
Critical Measurements of a Water-Reflected Enriched Uranium Sphere,” Trans. Am. Nucl. Soc. 27, 412-413 (1977).

55.   J. T. Mihalczo and J. J. Lynn, “
Critical Parameters of Bare and Reflected 93.4 wt% U235-Enriched Uranium Metal Slabs,” in “Neutron Physics Division Annual Progress Report for Period Ending September 1, 1960,” Oak Ridge National Laboratory report ORNL-3016 (December 1960), pp. 73-76.

56.   H. R. Ralston, “
Critical Masses of Spherical Systems of Oralloy Reflected in Beryllium,” University of California Radiation Laboratory report UCRL-4975 (October 1957).

57.   R. E. Donaldson and W. K. Brown, “
Critical-Mass Determinations of Lead-Reflected Systems,” University of California Radiation Laboratory report UCRL-5255 (June 1958).

58.   D. W. Magnuson, “
Critical Experiments with Enriched Uranium Dioxide,” Union Carbide Corporation, Y-12 Plant report Y-DR-120 (November 1973).

59.   J. G. Bruna, J. P. Brunet, R. Caizergues, C. Clouet d’Orval, and P. Verriere, “
Results of Homogeneous Critical Experiments Carried Out with 239Pu, 235U, and 233U,” (in French) in Proceedings of the Symposium Criticality Control of Fissile Materials, Stockholm, 1-5 November 1965 (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1966), pp. 235-248.

60.   P. Lécorché and R. L. Seale, “
A Review of the Experiments Performed to Determine the Radiological Consequences of a Criticality Accident,” Oak Ridge Criticality Data Center report Y-CDC-12 (November 1973).

61.   B. G. Dubovskii, A. V. Kamaev, V. V. Orlov, C. M. Vladykov, V. N. Gurin, F. M. Kuznetsov, V. P. Kochergin, I. P. Markelov, G. A. Popov, and V. J. Sviridenko, “
The Critical Parameters of Aqueous Solutions Of UO2(NO3)2 and Nuclear Safety,” in Proceedings of the Third International Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, Geneva, 1964 (United Nations, New York, 1965), Vol. 13, pp. 254-263.

62.   D. F. Cronin, “
Critical Mass Studies, Part X, Uranium of Intermediate Enrichment,” Oak Ridge National Laboratory report ORNL-2968 (October 1960).

63.   S. J. Raffety and J. T. Mihalczo, “
Homogeneous Critical Assemblies of 2 and 3% Uranium-235-Enriched Uranium in Paraffin,” Nucl. Sci. Eng. 48, 433-443 (1972).

64.   J. C. Smith, A. V. Parker, J. G. Walford, and C. White, “
Criticality of 30% Enriched Uranium Solutions in Cylindrical Geometry,” Dounreay Experimental Reactor Establishment report DEG-Memo-663 (March 1960).

65.   R. E. Carter, J. C. Hinton, L. D. P. King, and R. E. Schreiber, “
Water Tamper Measurements,” Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory report LA-241 (March 1945).

66.   E. B. Johnson, “
Criticality of a Sphere of U(4.98)UO2F2 Solution,” in “Neutron Physics Division Annual Progress Report for Period Ending May 31, 1966,” Oak Ridge National Laboratory report ORNL-3973 (September 1966), pp. 14, 15.

67.   E. B. Johnson, “
Critical Lattices of U(4.89), Rods in Water and in Aqueous Boron Solution,” Trans. Am. Nucl. Soc. 11, 675 (1968).

68.   C. G. Chezem and R. G. Steinke, “
Low-Enrichment Uranium-Metal Exponential Experiments,” Nucl. Sci. Eng. 31, 549,550 (1968).

69.   J. J. Neuer, “
Critical Assembly of Uranium Metal at an Average U235 Concentration of 16-1/4%,” Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory report LA-2085 (January 1957).

70.   R. H. White, “
Topsy, A Remotely Controlled Critical Assembly Machine,” Nucl. Sci. Eng. 1, 53-61 (1956).

71.   H. C. Paxton, “
Bare Critical Assemblies of Oralloy at Intermediate Concentrations of U235,” Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory report LA-1671 (July 1954).

72.   Darrouzet, J. P. Chandat, E. A. Fischer, G. Ingram, J. E. Sanders, and W. Scholtyssek, “
Studies of Unit k Lattices in Metallic Uranium Assemblies Zebra 8H, Sneak 8, Ermine and Harmonie,” in Proc. Int. Symposium on Physics of Fast Reactors, Tokyo, October 16-19, 1973 (Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation, Tokyo), Vol. I, pp. 537-570.

73.   E. B. Johnson, “
Critical Parameters of U(1.95) Metal Cylindrical Annuli,” Trans. Am. Nucl. Soc. 9, 185,186 (1966). E. B. Johnson, “Criticality of U(3.85) Rods and Cylindrical Annuli in Water,” Trans. Am. Nucl. Soc. 13, 379 (1970).

74.   E. B. Johnson and L. M. Petrie, “
The Criticality of Large Uranium Metal Units of Low Enrichment in 235U,” Oak Ridge National Laboratory report ORNL-6310 (1987).

75.   J. C. Hoogterp, “
Unreflected Plexiglas-Graphite-Uranium Critical Measurements,” Trans. Am. Nucl. Soc. 11, 389,390 (1968).

76.   H. Kouts, G. Price, K. Downes, R. Sher, and V. Walsh, “
Exponential Experiments with Slightly Enriched Uranium Rods in Ordinary Water,” in Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, Geneva, 1955 (United Nations, New York, 1956), Vol. 5, pp. 183-202.

77.   H. Kouts, R. Sher, J. R. Brown, D. Klein, S. Stein, R. L. Hellens, H. Arnold, R. M. Ball, and P. W. Davison, “
Physics of Slightly Enriched, Normal Water Lattices (Theory and Experiment),” in Proceedings of the Second International Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, Geneva, 1957 (United Nations, New York, 1958), Vol. 12, pp. 446-482.

78.   E. B. Johnson, “
Criticality of Uranium of Low Enrichment in Water,” Trans. Am. Nucl. Soc. 12, 336 (1969).

79.   C. R. Richey, R. C. Lloyd, and E. D. Clayton, “
Criticality of Slightly Enriched Uranium in Water-Moderated Lattices,” Nucl. Sci. Eng. 21, 217-226 (1965).

80.   W. B. Rogers, Jr., and F. E. Kinard, “
Material Buckling and Critical Masses of Uranium Rods Containing 3 wt% U235 in H2O,” Nucl. Sci. Eng. 20, 266-271 (1964).

81.   J. C. Manaranche, D. Mangin, L. Maubert, G. Colomb, and G. Poullot, “
Critical Experiments with Lattices of 4.75 wt% 235U-Enriched UO2 Rods in Water,” Nucl. Sci. Eng. 71, 154-163 (1979).

82.   J. C. Hoogterp, “
Critical Masses of Oralloy Lattices Immersed in Water,” Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory report LA-2026 (March 1957).

83.   J. K. Fox and L. W. Gilley, “
Critical Experiments with Arrays of ORR and BSR Fuel Elements,” in “Neutron Physics Division Annual Progress Report for Period Ending September 1, 1958,” Oak Ridge National Laboratory report ORNL-2609 (October 1958), pp. 34-36.

84.   E. B. Johnson and R. K. Reedy, Jr., “
Critical Experiments with SPERT-D Fuel Elements,” Oak Ridge National Laboratory report ORNL-TM-1207 (July 1965).

85.   A. Goodwin, Jr., G. H. Bidinger, and C. L. Schuske, “
Criticality Studies of Enriched Uranium Metal in UO2(NO3)2 Solutions,” Dow Chemical Co., Rocky Flats Plant report RFP-182 (July 1960).

86.   C. L. Schuske, M. G. Arthur, and D. F. Smith, “
Neutron Multiplication Measurements on Oralloy Slabs Immersed in Solutions,” Dow Chemical Co., Rocky Flats Plant report RFP-66 (August 1956).

87.   C. L. Schuske, M. G. Arthur, and D. F. Smith, “
Neutron Multiplication Measurements on Oralloy Slabs Immersed in Solution, Part II,” Dow Chemical Co., Rocky Flats Plant report RFP-69 (October 1956).

88.   W. A. Reardon and J. D. White, “
Calculations of Criticality Properties of Plutonium Nitrate Systems,” Hanford Atomic Products Operation report HW-72586 (January 1962), pp. 66-78.

89.   C. C. Horton and J. D. McCullen, “
Plutonium-Water Critical Assemblies,” in Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, Geneva, 1955 (United Nations, New York, 1956), Vol. 5, pp. 156-161.

90.   J. Bruna, J. P. Brunet, R. Caizergues, C. Clouet d’Orval, J. Kremser, J. LeClerc, and P. Verriere, “
Criticality Experiment on a Plutonium Solution,” (in French) Commissariat a l’Energie Atomique report CEA-2274, Centre d’Etudes Nucleaires, Saclay (1963).

91.   M. F. Ithurralde, J. Kremser, J. LeClerc, C. Lombard, J. Moreau, and C. Robin, “
Interpretation of Criticality Experiments on Homogeneous Solutions of Plutonium and Uranium,” (in French) Commissariat a l’Energie Atomique report CEA-R-2488 (1964).

92.   D. Breton, P. Lécorché, and C. Clouet d’Orval, “
Criticality Studies,” (in French) in Proceedings of the Third United Nations International Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, Geneva, 1964 (United Nations, New York, 1965), Vol. 13, pp. 234-242.

93.   R. C. Lloyd, C. R. Richey, E. D. Clayton, and D. R. Skeen, “
Criticality Studies with Plutonium Solutions,” Nucl. Sci. Eng. 25, 165-173 (1966).

94.   R. C. Lloyd, E. D. Clayton, L. E. Hansen, and S. R. Bierman, “
Criticality of Plutonium Nitrate Solutions in Slab Geometry,” Nucl. Technol. 18, 225-230 (1973).

95.   D. R. Smith and W. U. Geer, “
Critical Mass of a Water-Reflected Plutonium Sphere,” Nucl. Appl. Technol. 7, 405-408 (1969).

96.   R. C. Lloyd, R. A. Libby, and E. D. Clayton, “
The Measurement of Eta and the Limiting Critical Concentration of 239Pu, in Critical Aqueous Solutions,” Nucl. Sci. Eng. 82, 325-331 (1982).

97.   G. Colomb, D. Mangin, and L. Maubert, “
Criticality of Plutonium Nitrate Solutions (19% 240Pu),” (in French) Commissariat a l’Energie Atomique report CEA-N-1898 (September 1976).

98.   R. C. Lloyd and E. D. Clayton, “
The Criticality of High Burnup Plutonium,” Nucl. Sci. Eng. 52, 73-75 (1973).

99.   C. R. Richey, J. D. White, E. D. Clayton, and R. C. Lloyd, “
Criticality of Homogeneous Plutonium Oxide-Plastic Compacts at H:Pu = 15,” Nucl. Sci. Eng. 23, 150-158 (1965).

100.   S. R. Bierman, L. E. Hansen, R. C. Lloyd, and E. D. Clayton, “
Critical Experiments with Homogeneous PuO2-Polystyrene at 5 H/Pu,” Nucl. Appl. 6, 23-26 (1969).

101.   S. R. Bierman and E. D. Clayton, “
Critical Experiments with Homogeneous PUO2-Polystyrene at 50 H/Pu,” Nucl. Technol. 15, 5-13 (1972).

102.   S. R. Bierman and E. D. Clayton, “
Critical Experiments with Unmoderated Plutonium Oxide,” Nucl. Technol. 11, 185-190 (1971).

103.   S. R. Bierman, E. D. Clayton, and L. E. Hansen, “
Critical Experiments with Homogeneous Mixtures of Plutonium and Uranium Oxides Containing 8, 15, and 30 wt% Plutonium,” Nucl. Sci. Eng. 50, 115-126 (1973).

104.   R. C. Lloyd, S. R. Bierman, and E. D. Clayton, “
Criticality of Plutonium-Uranium Mixtures Containing 5 to 8 wt% Plutonium,” Nucl. Sci. Eng. 55, 51-57 (1974).

105.   S. R. Bierman and E. D. Clayton, “
Critical Experiments with Low-Moderated Homogeneous Mixtures of Plutonium and Uranium Oxides Containing 8, 15, and 30 wt% Plutonium,” Nucl. Sci. Eng. 61, 370-376 (1976).

106.   R. C. Lloyd and E. D. Clayton, “
Criticality of Plutonium-Uranium Nitrate Solutions,” Nucl. Sci. Eng. 60, 143-146 (1976).

107.   R. C. Lane and O. J. E. Perkins, “
The Measurement of the Critical Size of a Homogeneous Mixture of Plutonium and Natural Uranium Oxides with Polythene,” United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority report AWRE 0 32/68, Aldermaston (July 1968).

108.   R. C. Lane and C. Parker, “
Measurement of the Critical Size of Solutions of Plutonium and Natural Uranium Nitrates with Pu/U = 0.3,” United Kingdom Ministry of Defense report AWRE 0 58/73, Aldermaston (December 1973).

109.   E. D. Clayton, H. K. Clark, D. W. Magnuson, J. H. Chalmers, Gordon Walker, N. Ketzlach, Ryohei Kiyose, C. L. Brown, D. R. Smith, and R. Artigas, “
Basis for Subcritical Limits in Proposed Criticality Safety Standard for Mixed Oxides,” Nucl. Technol. 35, 97-111 (1977). E. D. Clayton, H. K. Clark, Gordon Walker, and R. A. Libby, “Basis for Extending Limits in ANSI Standard for Mixed Oxides to Heterogeneous Systems,” Nucl Technol. 75, 225-229 (November 1986).

110.   “Nuclear Criticality Control and Safety of Plutonium-Uranium Fuel Mixtures Outside Reactors,” ANSI/ANS-8.12-1987 (American National Standards Institute, Inc., New York, 1987).

111.   V. I. Neeley, R. C. Lloyd, and E. D. Clayton, “
Neutron Multiplication Measurements with Pu-Al Alloy Rods in Light Water,” Hanford Atomic Products Operation report HW-70944 (August 1961).

112.   S. R. Bierman, B. M. Durst, E. D. Clayton, R. I. Scherpelz, and H. T. Kerr, “
Critical Experiment with Fast Test Reactor Fuel Pins in Water,” Nucl. Technol. 44, 141-151 (1979).

113.   J. T. Thomas, “
Critical Experiments with Aqueous Solutions Of 235UO2(NO3)2,” in “Neutron Physics Division Annual Progress Report for Period Ending May 31, 1968,” Oak Ridge National Laboratory report ORNL-4280 (October 1968), pp. 53-55.

114.   W. E. Converse, R. C. Lloyd, E. D. Clayton, and W. A. Yuill, “
Critical Experiments Using High-Enriched Uranyl Nitrate with Cadmium Absorber,” Trans. Am. Nucl. Soc. 32, 328-330 (1979).

115.   E. B. Johnson, “
The Criticality of Heterogeneous Lattices of Experimental Beryllium Oxide Reactor Fuel Pins in Water and in Aqueous Solutions Containing Boron and Uranyl Nitrate,” Oak Ridge National Laboratory report ORNL/ENG-2 (July 1976).

116.   V. I. Neeley, J. A. Berberet, and R. H. Masterson, “
k of Three Weight Percent U235 Enriched UO3 and UO2(NO3)2 Hydrogenous Systems,” Hanford Atomic Products Operation report HW-66882 (September 1961).

117.   J. T. Mihalczo and V. I. Neeley, “
The Infinite Neutron Multiplication Constant of Homogeneous Hydrogen-Moderated 2.0 wt% U235-Enriched Uranium,” Nucl. Sci. Eng. 13, 6-11 (1962).

118.   H. E. Handler, “
Measurement of Multiplication Constant for Slightly Enriched Homogeneous UO3-Water Mixtures and Minimum Enrichment for Criticality,” Hanford Atomic Products Operation report HW-70310 (August 1961).

119.   R. C. Lloyd, E. D. Clayton, and L. E. Hansen, “
Criticality of Plutonium Nitrate Solution Containing Soluble Gadolinium,” Nucl. Sci. Eng. 48, 300-304 (1972).

120.   R. C. Lloyd and E. D. Clayton, “
Criticality of Plutonium-Uranium Nitrate Solutions,” Nucl. Sci. Eng. 60, 143-146 (1976).

121.   R. C. Lloyd, S. R. Bierman, and E. D. Clayton, “
Criticality of Plutonium Nitrate Solutions Containing Borated Raschig Rings,” Nucl. Sci. Eng. 50, 127-134 (1973).

122.   S. R. Bierman and E. D. Clayton, “
Critical Experiments to Measure the Neutron Poisoning Effects of Copper and Copper-Cadmium Plates,” Nucl. Sci. Eng. 55, 58-66 (1974).

123.   S. R. Bierman, B. M. Durst, and E. D. Clayton, “
Critical Experiments Measuring the Reactivity Worths of Materials Commonly Encountered as Fixed Neutron Absorbers,” Nucl. Sci. Eng. 65, 41-48 (1978).

124.   J. T. Thomas, J. K. Fox, and E. B. Johnson, “
Critical Mass Studies, Part XIII. Borosilicate Glass Raschig Rings in Aqueous Uranyl Nitrate Solutions,” Oak Ridge National Laboratory report ORNL-TM-499 (February 1963).

125.   G. H. Bidinger, C. L. Schuske, and D. F. Smith, “
Nuclear Safety Experiments on Plutonium and Enriched Uranium Hydrogen Moderated Assemblies Containing Boron,” Dow Chemical Co., Rocky Flats Plant report RFP-201 (October 1960).

126.   C. L. Schuske and G. H. Bidinger, “
Nuclear Safety Measurements on Systems Containing Boron and Enriched Uranium,” Dow Chemical Co., Rocky Flats Plant report RFP-246 (October 1961).

127.   J. K. Fox and L. W. Gilley, “
The Poisoning Effect of Copper Lattices in Aqueous Solutions of Enriched Uranyl Oxyfluoride,” in “Neutron Physics Division Annual Progress Report for Period Ending September 1, 1959,” Oak Ridge National Laboratory report ORNL-2842 (November 1959), pp. 73-76

128.   L. W. Gilley, D. F. Cronin, and V. G. Harness, “
Boron Poisoning in Critical Slabs,” in “Physics Division Semiannual Progress Report for Period Ending March 10, 1954,” Oak Ridge National Laboratory report ORNL-1715 (July 1954), pp. 12,13.

129.   L. W. Gilley and Dixon Callihan, “
Nuclear Safety Tests on a Proposed Ball Mill,” Oak Ridge National Laboratory report ORNL-CF-54-9-89 (September 1954).

130.   J. K. Fox and L. W. Gilley, “
Critical Parameters for 20-in.-diam Stainless Steel Cylinders Containing Aqueous Solutions of U235 Poisoned with Pyrex Glass,” in “Neutron Physics Division Annual Progress Report for Period Ending September 1, 1959,” Oak Ridge National Laboratory report ORNL-2842 (November 1959), pp. 78-81.

131.   R. C. Lloyd, “
Summary Listing of Subcritical Measurements of Heterogeneous Water-Uranium Lattices Made at Hanford,” Hanford Atomic Products Operation report HW-65552 (June 1960).

132.   H. Kouts and R. Sher, “
Experimental Studies of Slightly Enriched Uranium, Water-Moderated Lattices,” Brookhaven National Laboratory report BNL-486 (September 1957).

133.   W. H. Arnold, Jr., “
Critical Masses and Lattice Parameters Of H2O-UO2 Critical Experiments. A Comparison of Theory and Experiment,” Westinghouse Atomic Power Department report YAEC-152 (November 1959).

134.   R. C. Lloyd, B. M. Durst, and E. D. Clayton, “
Effect of Soluble Neutron Absorbers on the Criticality of Low-Uranium-235-Enriched UO2 Lattices,” Nucl. Sci. Eng. 71, 164-169 (1979).

135.   G. E. Hansen and D. P. Wood, “
Precision Critical Mass Determinations for Oralloy and Plutonium in Spherical Tuballoy Tampers,” Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory report LA-1356 (Del.) (February 1952).

136.   G. E. Hansen, H. C. Paxton, and D. P. Wood, “
Critical Masses of Oralloy in Thin Reflectors,” Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory report LA-2203 (July 1958).

137.   D. C. Coonfield, Grover Tuck, H. E. Clark, and B. B. Ernst, “
Critical Mass Irregularity of Steel-Moderated Enriched Uranium Metal Assemblies with Composite Steel-Oil Reflectors,” Nucl. Sci. Eng. 39, 320-328 (1970).

138.   J. R. Dominey, R. C. Lane, and A. F. Thomas, “
Critical Mass Measurements with Thin Discs of 45.5% Enriched Uranium,” United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority report AWRE NR/A-1/62, Aldermaston (January 1962).

139.   J. J. McEnhill and J. W. Weale, “
Integral Experiments on Fast Systems of Plutonium, Uranium, and Thorium,” in Proc. of Conf. on Physics of Fast and Intermediate Reactors, Vienna (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1962), Vol. I, pp. 253-262.

140.   E. A. Plassman and D. P. Wood, “
Critical Reflector Thicknesses for Spherical U233 and Pu239 Systems,” Nucl. Sci. Eng. 8, 615-620 (1960).

141.   G. E. Hansen and H. C. Paxton, “
Reevaluated Critical Specifications of Some Los Alamos Fast-Neutron Systems,” Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory report LA-4208 (September 1969).

142.   H. R. Ralston, “
Critical Parameters of Spherical Systems of Alpha-Phase Plutonium Reflected by Beryllium,” University of California Radiation Laboratory report UCRL- 5349 (September 1958).

143.   R. E. Rothe and I. Oh, “
Benchmark Critical Experiments on High-Enriched Uranyl Nitrate Solution Systems,” Nucl. Technol. 41, 207-225 (1978).

144.   E. B. Johnson and C. E. Newlon, “
The Effect of Steel-Water Reflectors on the Criticality of Low-Enriched Uranyl Fluoride Solution,” Trans. Am. Nucl. Soc. 11, 383,384 (1968).

145.   L. B. Engle, G. E. Hansen, and H. C. Paxton, “
Reactivity Contributions of Various Materials in Topsy, Godiva, and Jezebel,” Nucl. Sci. Eng. 8, 543-569 (1960).

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100. N. F. Cross, G. E. Whitesides, and R. J. Hinton, “
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111. G. R. Handley, R. C. Robinson, and J. C. Cline, “
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112. H. F. Henry, J. R. Knight, and C. E. Newlon, “
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  Other ARH-600, Criticality Handbook Volume 1: Criticality Safety—Nuclear Materials Section
Volume 2: Advance Process Development Section
Volume 3: Advance Process Development Section
Archive Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Experimental Logbooks
Array Experiments Phase 1 (UCRL-MI-135701-PH-1)
Volume 1
Volume 2
Volume 3
Volume 4
    Array Experiments Phase 2 (UCRL-MI-135701-PH-2) Volume 1
Volume 2
Volume 3
Volume 4
Volume 5 (Includes Phase 3, Volume 1)
    Array Experiments Phase 3 (UCRL-MI-135701-PH-3) Volume 2

 

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